Resources

Visa Chargeback Codes

Fraudulent Activity

10.1 EMV Liability Shift Counterfeit Fraud

Why did I get this notification?
A cardholder is claiming that they did not authorize or participate in a transaction that you processed.

The cardholder’s bank determined all of the following things occurred:

• The transaction was completed with a counterfeit card in a card-present environment,
• The card is a chip card, and
• Either of these things occurred:
– The transaction did not take place at a chip-reading device.
– The transaction was chip-initiated and, if the transaction was authorized online, your card
processor did not transmit the full chip data to Visa in the authorization request.

What caused the dispute?
The cardholder has a chip card, but the transaction did not take place at a chip terminal or was not chip read.

How should I respond?
The transaction took place at a chip terminal.
Provide documentation to support that the transaction was chip read and evidence that the full chip data was transmitted.
• You agree the transaction did not take place at a chip terminal.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder stating that they no longer dispute the transaction.

10.2 EMV Liability Shift Non-Counterfeit Fraud

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder’s bank received a call from their cardholder who is insisting that they did not authorize
or participate in a transaction that you processed. The cardholder’s bank determined all of the following
occurred:
• The transaction was completed in a card-present environment with a card that was reported lost
or stolen,
• The transaction qualifies for the EMV liability shift,
• The card is a PIN-preferring chip card, and
• One of these actions transpired:
– The transaction did not take place at a chip-reading device.
– A chip-initiated transaction took place at a chip-reading device that was not EMV PIN-compliant.
– The transaction was chip-initiated without an online PIN and was authorized online and the
processor did not transmit the full chip data to Visa in the authorization request.

What caused the dispute?
The most common cause of this dispute is that a PIN-preferring chip card was used either at a non-EMV
terminal or a chip transaction was initiated without full chip data.

How should I respond?
• The transaction took place at an EMV PIN compliant terminal.
Provide documentation to support that the transaction took place at an EMV PIN compliant terminal.
• You agree the transaction was not completed at an EMV PIN-compliant terminal.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

10.3 Other Fraud: Card-Present Environment / Condition

Why did I get this notification?
A cardholder is claiming that they did not authorize or participate in a key-entered or unattended
transaction conducted in a card-present environment.
What caused the dispute?
The most common causes of this type of dispute are that you:
• Did not ensure that the card was either swiped or that the chip was read.
• Did not make a manual imprint of the card account information on the transaction receipt for a keyentered transaction.
• Completed a card-absent transaction, but did not identify the transaction as an internet or mail order/phone order.A cardholder is claiming that they did not authorize or participate in a key-entered or unattended transaction conducted in a card-present environment.

What caused the dispute?
The most common causes of this type of dispute are that you:
• Did not ensure that the card was either swiped or that the chip was read.
• Did not make a manual imprint of the card account information on the transaction receipt for a keyentered transaction.
• Completed a card-absent transaction, but did not identify the transaction as an internet or mail order/phone order.

How should I respond?
• The card was chip-read or swiped and the transaction was authorized at the point of sale.
Provide a copy of the authorization record as proof that the card’s magnetic stripe or chip was read.
• A manual imprint was obtained at the time of sale. (Does not apply to the Europe region)
Provide a copy of the manual imprint.
• You agree the transaction was not chip-read, swiped or manually imprinted.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide your card processor with a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer
dispute the transaction.

10.4 Other Fraud: Card-absent Environment / Condition

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder’s bank has filed a dispute stating that their cardholder did not authorize or participate in a
transaction conducted in a card-absent environment (i.e., internet, mail-order, phone-order, etc.).
What caused the dispute?
You
• Processed a card-absent transaction from a person who was fraudulently
using an account number.
The cardholder
• Had their account number taken by fraudulent means.
• Due to an unclear or a confusing merchant name the cardholder believesthe transaction to be fraudulent.

How should I respond?
• The transaction was authenticated with Verified by Visa.
Advise your card processor that the transaction was Verified by Visa-authenticated at time of
authorization.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.
• The transaction was authenticated with Verified by Visa.
Advise your card processor that the transaction was Verified by Visa-authenticated at time of
authorization.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed. 
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

10.5 Visa Fraud Monitoring Program

Why did I get this notification?
Visa notified the cardholder’s bank that the Visa Fraud Monitoring Program (VFMP) identified the
transaction and the cardholder’s bank has not successfully disputed the transaction under another dispute
condition.

What caused the dispute?
Your business was entered into the VFMP and the issuer was permitted to dispute the fraudulent transaction.

How should I respond?
• You have already processed a creditor reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• You have already accepted a prior dispute for the same transaction.
Provide details of the previously accepted dispute.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.
• You have already processed a creditor reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• You have already accepted a prior dispute for the same transaction.
Provide details of the previously accepted dispute.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

Authorization Issues

11.1 Card Recovery Bulletin

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder’s bank determined that both of these occurred:
• You did not obtain an authorization on the transaction date, and
• The account number was listed in the Card Recovery Bulletin for the Visa region in which you are located.

What caused the dispute?
You failed to check the Card Recovery Bulletin (CRB) when required.

How should I respond?

• You agree the transaction was not authorized and the CRB was not checked
Accept the dispute.
Transaction took place at an EMV compliant terminal or contactless only acceptance device.
Provide documentation to support that the transaction took place at an EMV PIN compliant terminal.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

11.2 Declined Authorization

Why did I get this notification?
You processed a transaction where you received a Decline or Pickup response, but you completed the transaction anyway.

What caused the dispute?
The most common cause for this type of dispute is processing a transaction after a decline or card pickupresponse, you sent the transaction in your capture file without attempting another authorization request(commonly referred to as forced posting).

How should I respond?

• You believe the transaction was authorized.
Have your card processor provide evidence that the transaction was authorized online or offline
0via the chip.
• You agree the transaction was not authorized.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a creditor reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

11.3 No Authorization

Why did I get this notification?
You processed a transaction where an authorization was required, but not obtained.

What caused the dispute?
The most common causes for this type of dispute is you did not obtain any authorization or a sufficientauthorization to cover the amount of the transaction.

How should I respond?

You obtained an authorization.
Notify your card processor and provide documentation.
You agree the transaction was not authorized.
Accept the dispute.
You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

Processing Errors

12.1 Late Presentment

Why did I get this notification?
The transaction was completed past the required time limits.

What caused the dispute?
The transaction was not sent to Visa within the timeframe required.

How should I respond?

• You believe the transaction was completed within the time limit.
Provide a copy of the receipt to support the transaction date.
• The transaction was completed later than the specified time limit.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

12.2 Incorrect Transaction Code

Why did I get this notification?
You sent a transaction with an incorrect transaction code (i.e., you meant to send a credit, but you actually sent a sale, or you meant to process a sale and sent a credit).

What caused the dispute?
You processed a debit when you should have processed a credit or you processed a credit when you should have processed a reversal.

How should I respond?

• You believe the transaction was processed correctly.
Provide documentation that shows the transaction was processed correctly as a credit or debit to the cardholder’s account.
• The transaction was processed incorrectly.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.(Does not apply when credit was processed instead of a reversal.)
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction

12.3 Incorrect Currency

Why did I get this notification?
You sent a transaction that was processed with an incorrect currency code or one of the following:
• The transaction currency is different from the currency transmitted through Visa.
• The cardholder was not advised or did not agree that Dynamic Currency Conversion (DCC) would occur.

What caused the dispute?
There are two common causes for this type of dispute:
• The transaction currency is different from the currency transmitted through Visa.
• The cardholder claims that you failed to offer them a choice of paying in your local currency or thatthey declined paying in their local currency.

How should I respond?

• You believe this was a properly processed DCC transaction.
Provide your card processor with documentation such as:
– Evidence that the cardholder actively chose DCC
– A copy of the transaction receipt
• The transaction was processed incorrectly.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

12.4 Incorrect Account Number

Why did I get this notification?
You either processed the transaction to an incorrect account number or did not authorize the transaction and it was processed to an account number not on the issuer’s master file.

What caused the dispute?
The incorrect account number was processed.

How should I respond?

• You believe that the account number on the dispute matches the account number on your copy of the receipt.
Provide a copy of the receipt and if the dispute relates to a transaction processed on an account number not on the issuer’s master file provide a copy of the authorization log.
The account number on the dispute does not match the account number on your copy of the receipt.
Accept the dispute.
• Transaction was not authorized.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

12.5 Incorrect Amount

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder submitted a claim to their bank that says one of the following things happened:
• The transaction amount is incorrect.
• An addition or transposition error was made when calculating the transaction amount.
• You altered the transaction amount after the transaction was completed without the consent of the cardholder.

What caused the dispute?
You made a data entry error (i.e., keyed in the wrong amount, handwritten amount differs from printed amount).

How should I respond?

• Transaction amount is correct.
Provide supporting documentation (i.e., copy of transaction receipt).
• The transaction amount was incorrect.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

12.6.1 Duplicate Processing

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder claims that a single transaction was processed more than once.

What caused the dispute?
There are four common causes for this type of dispute:
• You entered the same transaction into your terminal more than once.
• You electronically sent the same transaction capture batch to your card processor more than once.
• You deposited both the merchant copy and the acquirer copy of the transaction receipt.
• Two transaction receipts were created for the same purchase.

How should I respond?
• Transactions receipts are not duplicates.
Provide information and documentation to show the two transactions are separate and are not for the same item or service.
• Transaction was duplicated.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that shows they no longer dispute the transaction.

12.6.2 Paid by Other Means

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder claims that they paid for the merchandise or service by other means (i.e. cash, check, other card, etc.).

What caused the dispute?
The cardholder initially gave you a Visa card as payment, but then decided to use cash, check, or another card after you completed the transaction.

How should I respond?

• Visa card was the only form of payment used.
Provide the sales records or other documentation that shows no other form of payment was used.
• The cardholder did use another form of payment.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

12.7 Invalid Data

Why did I get this notification?
An authorization was obtained using invalid or incorrect data.

What caused the dispute?
The common causes for this type of dispute:

• An authorization request contained an incorrect transaction date, MCC, merchant or transaction type indicator, Country or State Code, Special Condition Indicator, or other required field.

How should I respond?
• The authorization did not contain invalid data.
Provide the sales records or other documentation to support that the transaction was authorized with valid data.
• The authorization was obtained using invalid date.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

Customer disputes

13.1 Merchandise / Services Not Received

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder claims that merchandise or services that they ordered were not received or that the cardholder cancelled the order as the result of not receiving the merchandise or services by the expected delivery date (or merchandise was unavailable for pick-up).

What caused the dispute?
There are several common causes for this type of dispute:
• You did not provide the services.
• You did not send the merchandise by the agreed-upon delivery date, time or to the agreed upon location.
• You billed for the transaction before shipping the merchandise.
• You did not make merchandise available for pick-up.

How should I respond?

• You delivered the merchandise or made it available for pickup by the agreed-upon date or agreed upon location.
Provide documentation to prove that the cardholder or authorized person received the merchandise or services as agreed.
• Specified delivery date has not yet passed.
Provide documentation to support the expected delivery date.
• Cardholder cancelled prior to expected date.
Provide documentation to support you were able to provide merchandise or service and that the cardholder cancelled prior to the delivery date.
• Transaction represents a partial payment with balance due.
Provide documentation to support additional payments due.
• You did not deliver the merchandise or provide the service as agreed.
Notify your card processor that you accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.For further details, refer to the Compelling Evidence Chart in the Dispute Management Guidelines for Visa Merchants.
Section 4: Dispute Conditions 42 Dispute Management Guidelines for Visa Merchants
© 2018 Visa. All Rights Reserved.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

13.2 Canceled Recurring Transaction

Why did I get this notification?
You sent a transaction with an incorrect transaction code (i.e., you meant to send a credit, but you actually sent a sale, or you meant to process a sale and sent a credit).

What caused the dispute?
You processed a debit when you should have processed a credit or you processed a credit when you should have processed a reversal.

How should I respond?

• You believe the transaction was processed correctly.
Provide documentation that shows the transaction was processed correctly as a credit or debit to the cardholder’s account.
• The transaction was processed incorrectly.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.(Does not apply when credit was processed instead of a reversal.)
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction

13.3 Not as Described or Defective Merchandise / Services

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder’s bank received a notice from the cardholder claiming that the goods or services were one or more of these:
• Merchandise or services did not match the description on the transaction receipt or other
documentation presented at the time of purchase.
• Merchandise or services are not the same as your verbal description (for a telephone transaction6).
• The merchandise was received damaged or defective.
• The cardholder disputes the quality of the merchandise or services.
What caused the dispute?
There are several common causes for this type of dispute:
• You sent the wrong merchandise to the cardholder.
• You sent the merchandise, but it was damaged during shipment.
• You inaccurately described the merchandise or services.
• You did not perform the services as described.

How should I respond?

• The merchandise or service was as described.
Provide specific information (invoice, contract, etc.) to refute the cardholder’s claims. Quality disputes are where the customer does not agree with the condition of merchandise or service received (e.g., a car repair situation or quality of a hotel room). There may be instances where you will need toobtain a neutral third-party opinion to help corroborate your claim against the cardholder. Provide as much specific information and documentation as possible to refute the cardholder’s claims. It is recommended that you address each point that the cardholder has made.
• Returned merchandise was not received or services were not cancelled.
Advise that you have not received the returned merchandise and the cardholder never attempted to return or cardholder has not cancelled services. However, double check your incoming shipping records to verify prior to response.
• The merchandise was replaced or repaired
Provide evidence of the following:
– The cardholder agreed to repair or replacement
– Repair or replacement was received
– The repair replacement has not since been disputed
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the creditor reversal include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

13.4 Counterfeit Merchandise

Why did I get this notification?
The merchandise was identified as counterfeit by the owner of the intellectual property or authorized representative, a custom’s agency, law enforcement agency, other governmental agency, or a neutral third party expert.

What caused the dispute?
You sold merchandise that has been identified as counterfeit.

How should I respond?

• The merchandise was not counterfeit.
Provide specific information and invoices to refute the cardholder’s claims.
• The cardholder’s complaint is valid.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder stating that they no longer dispute the transaction.

13.5 Misrepresentation

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder’s bank received a notice from the cardholder claiming that the terms of the sale were misrepresented.

What caused the dispute?
The terms of sale were misrepresented for a transaction involving the following merchant types such as:

• Timeshare Reseller
• Debt Consolidation
• Credit Repair/Counseling
• Mortgage Repair/Modification/Counselling
• Foreclosure Relief Services
• Technical Services/Support
• Business Opportunities with income possibility
• Investment Products when merchant refuses to allow cardholder to withdraw available balance
(e.g. binary options)
• In the Europe Region Trial Periods/One-off purchase where the cardholder was not clearly advised of any further billing

How should I respond?

• The merchandise or services were not misrepresented.
Provide documentation to prove the terms of sale were not misrepresented or for investments
evidence that there are no funds to withdraw
• The merchandise or services were misrepresented.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

13.6 Credit Not Processed

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder’s bank received a notice from the cardholder claiming that they received a credit or voided transaction receipt that has not been processed.

What caused the dispute?
The most common causes for this dispute are that you:
• Did not issue a credit.
• Issued the credit, but did not deposit the credit with your acquirer in time for it to appear on the cardholder’s next statement.
• Have a transaction receipt that should have been voided/cancelled, but was processed.

How should I respond?
• The sale is valid and credit is not due.
Provide documentation and refute the validity of the documentation supplied by the cardholder’s
bank.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

13.7 Cancelled Merchandise / Services

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder’s bank received a notice from the cardholder stating that they returned merchandise or cancelled services, but the credit has not appeared on the cardholder’s Visa statement.

What caused the dispute?
The most common causes for this dispute are that you:
• Did not issue a credit for the cancelled services or merchandise that was returned.
• Did not issue a credit because you do not accept returns, however you did not properly disclose your return policy.
• Did not process a cancellation for a timeshare within 14 days of the contract or receipt date.
• Did not process a properly cancelled a guaranteed reservation.

How should I respond?

• You never received, or accepted, the returned merchandise.
Provide evidence you refused the return of the merchandise.
• Your policies were properly disclosed.
Provide documentation to support that your limited return or cancellation policy was properly disclosed and agreed to at the time of sale.
• The cardholder did not cancel according to your disclosed policy.
Provide documentation to support that your limited return or cancellation policy was properly disclosed and how the cardholder did not cancel according to the disclosed policy.
• Cardholder continued to use services.
Provide evidence to support.
• The cardholder’s complaint is valid.
Accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

13.8 Original Credit Transaction Not Accepted

Why did I get this notification?
The original credit was not accepted.

What caused the dispute?
Either the cardholder does not accept the credit, or the issuer does not allow Original Credit Transactions(OCT’s) on certain types of cards due to local law.

How should I respond?
• The credit transaction was reversed.
Supply documentation or information to support.
• The dispute is valid.
Accept the dispute.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction

13.9 Non-Receipt of Cash or Load Transaction Value

Why did I get this notification?
The cardholder’s bank received a notice from the cardholder that they participated in the transaction, but did not receive cash or load transaction value, or received a partial amount.

What caused the dispute?
Cardholder did not receive the full cash withdrawal or received only partial amount.

How should I respond?

• The ATM did dispense the correct value of cash.
Provide your card processor with a copy of the ATM cash disbursement transaction or load transaction record containing at least the following:
– Account Number
– Transaction time or sequential number that identifies the individual transactions
– Indicator that confirms the ATM cash disbursement or load transaction value was successful
• The cardholder’s complaint is valid.
Notify your card processor that you accept the dispute.
• You have already processed a credit or reversal for the transaction.
Provide documentation of the credit or reversal; include the amount and the date it was processed.
• The cardholder no longer disputes the transaction.
Provide a letter or email from the cardholder that states they no longer dispute the transaction.

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